Motorcycle helmets are vital to every bike rider as even the most careful riders can suffer head injuries because of accidents. Such accidents can be caused due to the fault of the rider, due to another driver or due to a stray object or animal suddenly breaking the speed of the motorcycle. Such accidents can impact the entire body but the head is the most vulnerable in this case. The injuries from bike accidents range from spinal fracture and hemorrhage to brain damage and clots.
Hence, it is extremely important that helmets are made with due carefulness, keeping in mind all the risks involved. No matter what material is used in the making of the helmet, the basic structure of all helmets is the same. All helmets have a protective outer shell, which is backed up by a cushion padding followed by comfort padding. There is a transparent visor to cover the face from the front. The base of the neck is equipped with a neck curtain to offer support to the neck. A chin strap is attached to the sides which act as a retention system against head jerks. The outer shell is made up of plastic, which is carbon fiber. This outermost shell protects the head from sharp objects piercing into it. Secondly, it evenly distributes the momentum of impact around the helmet. The outermost shell is made up of polycarbonate which is a string of carbon compounds and is light in weight, durable and exhibits very high resistance.
The thick inner protective padding is the most important part of the helmet. This is made of polystyrene which is composed of hydrogen and carbon, two of the most basic organic compounds. The inner padding distributes the outer kinetic impact of the accident all over the helmet. Its function is to absorb as much energy as it can, from the outside impact. Secondly, it also acts as a noise attenuator from outside noise. Both the polycarbonate and the polystyrene together act like a composite compound. The polycarbonate carbon fiber acts as reinforcement and the polystyrene acts like a matrix. The polystyrene gives flexibility to the carbon fiber and the polycarbonate offers strength to the polystyrene. The composite compound thus formed is strong, durable and light in weight. The major benefit from such helmets is that they are light in weight so they do not cause neck stains if worn for a very long time but they also cushion the impact of the accident shock, thus offering protection to the wearer. However, these helmets can be expensive. Once purchased, they needed to be kept carefully because once they suffer a major accident, they are rendered useless and the owner has to shell money for a new one.